Session 3 Focus Tasks
1. Explain Media Richness in your own words.
Media Richness measures how a particular media transmits information that would usually be transmitted in person using four criteria. It is an objective measure that is not influenced by the individual using a particular media because the media either has each of the four criteria, or it does not. A media that rates high in Media Richness transmits information in a message and also transmits information about the particular message. The more difficult the information is to transmit, the higher the level of Media Richness that is necessary for the task. For example, some things can easily be transmitted in an email, but to complete a group assignment, a media that meets more of the four criteria might be necessary.
2. What are the four criteria used to judge Media Richness?
The four criteria used to judge Media Richness are:
- Availability of instant feedback
- Capacity to transmit cues
- Ability to communicate using natural language
- Personal focus
3. Choose 4 or 5 technologies you might use in an online class and rate them on the four criteria. Using these ratings suggest some eLearning activity that might or might not be appropriate for each technology you rate. Explain your reasons.
|Skype||Google Doc||Discussion Board||Blog|
|Availability of Instant Feedback||Yes||Yes||Yes||Sometimes||Sometimes|
|Communicate using Natural Language||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Appropriate eLearning Activity||Providing Feedback- Email is a great way for an instructor to communicate with one student at a time to provide feedback to the individual about their work and to ask questions.||Group Project- Students can meet and discuss the project without having to meet in person. It is easy to make decisions if all the members are present.||Group Project- All members of the group can contribute to the product by using a Google Doc. They can also provide feedback to one another by highlighting text and writing a comment.||Asking questions about the text- A discussion board is a good place to have conversations about the text. I think the discussion would be more engaging if students posed questions about the text and classmates responded to those questions.||Responding to Questions about the text: Students can respond to a set of questions and give each other feedback on the quality of their responses.|
4. Explain Social Presence in your own words.
Social Presence is the connection that people make using a particular media in an eLearning environment that resemble the connections that they would make in a face-to-face environment. It is subjective because the individual perceives the level of Social Presence based on their expectations for the connections in the particular course. This is interesting because the level of Social Presence has varied greatly in the courses that I have taken. After taking more than one class with a professor, I have a good idea of the level of Social Presence in the class because the instructor usually requires a similar level of Social Presence in his or her classes.
5. Explain the difference between Social Presence and Media Richness.
The difference between Social Presence and Media Richness is that the level of Social Presence is more subjective because it is perceived the individual, while the level of Media Richness can be measured objectively with the set of four criteria. Media Richness is how the medium can transmit information, but Social Presence is how the instructor and the students actually make connections in the class. Even if an instructor uses mediums that are high in Media Richness, that does not mean that it will automatically lead to a higher level of Social Presence in the class. That is determined by the actual participation in the class by both the students and the instructor.
6. Provide some Issues or Trends in eLearning that you are interested in pursuing for your annotated bibliography. Remember, the annotated bibliography is NOT due this session!
As I researched trends in eLearning, I found two possible topics for my research: gamification and personalized learning. My district has some schools that are using the personalized learning model, so that is interesting. However, I think that I am going to focus on gamification because it is something that I haven’t researched and I think that it is a trend that would be useful for me to learn as I continue to expand my collection of best practices in eLearning.
7. Provide three articles that you think you might include in your annotated bibliography and explain how they are related to the trend or issue you are interested in having at the center of your annotated bibliography. Be sure to use APA formatting to present these three citations.
Once I began researching, I found several articles that will provide great starting points for my research on gamificiation. I remember the first thing I learned how to do on our classroom Mac in fifth grade was to play the Oregon Trail. It was so much fun! My five-year old has been playing educational games on an iPad and I see how engaged she is while she is playing. I think that I can find ways to engage my struggling sixth graders if I can find ways to incorporate gamification into their learning. I think it would be especially useful for my students who are gifted, but who choose not to complete their homework. The article that I think will be particularly useful is Gamification and Web-Based Homework. Another one that might be helpful is An Empirical Study Comparing Gamification and Social Networking on e-learning because I have so many students that spend a lot of their time on social media. The third article that will be great for my research is A Social Gamification Framework for a K-6 Learning Platform because it is specific to elementary school students. I was really excited about finding articles that actually relate to my students because most of the research that I have found in the past has focused on high school or college level students.
Cohen, A. M. (2011). The Gamification of Education. Futurist, 45(5), 16–17.
Crookall, D. (2010). Serious Games, Debriefing, and Simulation/Gaming as a Discipline. Simulation & Gaming, 41(6), 898–920. doi:10.1177/1046878110390784
de-Marcos, L., Domínguez, A., Saenz-de-Navarrete, J., & Pagés, C. (2014). An Empirical Study Comparing Gamification and Social Networking on e-learning. Computers & Education, 75, 82–91. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2014.01.012
Domínguez, A., Saenz-de-Navarrete, J., de-Marcos, L., Fernández-Sanz, L., Pagés, C., & Martínez-Herráiz, J.-J. (2013). Gamifying learning experiences: Practical implications and outcomes. Computers & Education, 63, 380–392. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.12.020
Goehle, G. (2013). Gamification and Web-Based Homework. PRIMUS, 23(3), 234-246. (n.d.).
Ibanez, M.-B., Di-Serio, A., & Delgado-Kloos, C. (2014). Gamification for Engaging Computer Science Students in Learning Activities: A Case Study. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 7(3), 291–301. doi:10.1109/TLT.2014.2329293
Kim, S. (2014). Decision Support Model for Introduction of Gamification Solution Using AHP. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, e714239. doi:10.1155/2014/714239
Koivisto, J., & Hamari, J. (2014). Demographic differences in perceived benefits from gamification. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 179–188. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.03.007
Lau, R. W. H., Yen, N. Y., Li, F., & Wah, B. (2013). Recent development in multimedia e-learning technologies. World Wide Web, 17(2), 189–198. doi:10.1007/s11280-013-0206-8
Nolan, J. , & McBride, M. (2014). Beyond Gamification: Reconceptualizing Game-Based Learning in Early Childhood Environments. (n.d.).
Raymer, R. (2011). Gamification: Using Game Mechanics to Enhance eLearning. eLearn, 2011(9). doi:10.1145/2025356.2031772
Seaborn, K., & Fels, D. I. (2015). Gamification in Theory and Action: A survey. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 74, 14–31. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2014.09.006
Simões, J., Redondo, R. D., & Vilas, A. F. (2013). A Social Gamification Framework for a K-6 Learning Platform. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(2), 345–353. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.06.007